I took my first degree at the London School of Pharmacy, which is now part of University College. This was followed by a PhD at John Moore’s University Liverpool where I gained a keen interest in cell biology and immunology.
A postdoctoral fellowship in 1982 allowed me to travel to Washington University in St Louis to study endocytosis and the macrophage mannose receptor with Philip Stahl.
In 1986 I moved to the Dana Farber Cancer Institute at Harvard Medical School to work with Cox Terhorst cloning genes for the signaling complex of the T-cell antigen receptor.
I was appointed to Assistant Professor at Harvard Medical School in 1991 and performed some of the first experiments on T-cell antigen receptor assembly and ER-stress related protein degradation.
In 1994 I returned to the UK to the Institute for Animal Health (The Pirbright Institute, UK) as Head of Immunology to study how viruses such as foot and mouth disease virus and African swine fever virus use cellular organelles to facilitate replication and how this affects immune responses.
In 2005 I moved to UEA where my lab studies how viruses activate autophagy during cell entry and replication.